Is theophylline found in chocolate?
Is theophylline found in chocolate?
Chocolate contains theobromine, a compound in the same family as caffeine, and theophylline (an asthma drug). In certain quantities, theobromine is toxic to dogs.
Is a xanthine found in chocolate?
Theobromine is the primary methylxanthine in chocolate. Other compounds in cocoa include caffeine, serotonin, histamine, tryptophan, tryptamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, octopamine, and anandamide. Theobromine is found in smaller quantities in the kola nut.
What is theobromine and theophylline?
Theobromine and theophylline are used for pharmaceutical purposes as bronchodilators and for vasodilators and also as mild muscle relaxants. They are used to prevent and treat shortness of breath caused by asthma and other respiratory disorders (1).
Is theophylline a xanthine?
The most widely used xanthine is theophylline. The xanthines also have other activities mediated by their effects on different tissue phosphodiesterases including inhibition of platelet function and arterial vasodilation.
What type of chocolate has the most theobromine?
Theobromine concentrations are higher in certain types of chocolate. Higher cacao percentage chocolate (progressively darker) has higher theobromine levels, with raw cacao powder being the highest at 20mg/g. Milk chocolate contains 2mg theobromine per 1g of chocolate. Dark chocolate contains on average 9mg/g21,25.
What is the unique xanthine in chocolate?
The unique xanthine in chocolate is: theobromine.
What is the chemical formula for chocolate?
Theobromine, also known as xantheose, is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant, with the chemical formula C7H8N4O2. It is found in chocolate, as well as in a number of other foods, including the leaves of the tea plant, and the kola nut.
Which type of chocolate has the highest amount of theobromine?
What is the difference between theobromine and theophylline?
Theobromine is water insoluble and is an isomer of theophylline as well as paraxanthine. Theobromine is categorized as 3,7-dimethylxanthine while theophylline is 1,3-dimethyl-7H-purine-2,6-dione and paraxanthine is 1,7-dimethylxanthine. Theophylline is known to be a bitter-tasting principle of green tea.
Is xanthine a purine?
1.1. Xanthine is a type of purine, and xanthinuria is a genetic deficiency of xanthine oxidase, a defect in purine metabolism. Xanthine stones (purine stones) are seen in patients with severe hyperuricemia taking allopurinol, or in those with rare inherited forms of xanthinuria.
Does theobromine contribute to the appeal of chocolate?
/HUMAN EXPOSURE STUDIES/ Theobromine, a methylxanthine -related to caffeine and present in high levels in cocoa, may contribute to the appeal of chocolate. However, current evidence for this is limited.
Theobromine, or 3, 7-Dimethylxanthine, is the principle alkaloid in Theobroma cacao (the cacao bean) and other plants. A xanthine alkaloid that is used as a bronchodilator and as a vasodilator. It has a weaker diuretic activity than theophylline and is also a less powerful stimulant of smooth muscle.
What is the difference between xanthine and theophylline?
A xanthine alkaloid that is used as a bronchodilator and as a vasodilator. It has a weaker diuretic activity than theophylline and is also a less powerful stimulant of smooth muscle. It has practically no stimulant effect on the central nervous system. It was formerly used as a diuretic and in the treatment of angina pectoris and hypertension.
Is cacao similar to xanthine?
The active compounds in cacao that are structurally similar to xanthine are methylxanthines (Figure 1B), of which the action on human physiology is quite remarkable. Most consumers will be unaware that the psychoactive effects caused by cacao, coffee, or tea consumption results from blockade of adenosine receptors.